Knowledge Synthesis Program

The Knowledge Synthesis Program within C2E2 brings leading edge methodologies and practices to informing critical challenges in the Canadian healthcare system.

Knowledge synthesis is defined by CIHR as ‘the contextualization and integration of research findings of individual research studies within the larger body of knowledge on the topic.’ As there is a proliferation of information on almost any given topic, usually at the click of a mouse, it is important to have robust methods to critically appraise evidence and report findings in an accessible manner. The syntheses undertaken by C2E2, across many different disciplines, follow best practices and can use quantitative and/ or qualitative methods.


There are a number of different methods employed in our knowledge synthesis activities at C2E2. These include:

  • Systematic review
  • Rapid review
  • Realist review
  • Scoping review
  • Narrative review
  • Meta-analysis


Our aim is to work with collaborators to find the right method for the given question. In some cases, our activity supports grant applications whereas in other cases the focus is on a specific policy question being asked by healthcare decision makers. We seek to work closely with collaborators to ensure the appropriate approach is selected.